Humans were born armed. Before Homo sapiens first walked the Earth, proto-humans had manufactured spears and other tools not only to hunt and defend themselves but also to attack other humans. The war instinct is part of human nature, but the means to fight war depend on technology. Politics, economics, ideology, culture, strategy, tactics, and philosophy have all shaped war, but none of these factors has driven the evolution of warfare as much as technology. Expanding on this compelling thesis, this book traces the co-evolution of technology and war from the Stone Age to the age of cyberwar and nanotechnology. Alex Roland shines a light on the patterns of interaction between technology and warfare, describing the sensational inventions that changed the direction of war throughout history: fortified walls, the chariot, swift and nimble battleships, the gunpowder revolution, and finally aircraft, bombers, rockets, submarines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and nuclear weapons. In the twenty-first century, scientific and engineering research is constantly transforming war and simultaneously producing countless technological innovations. Yet even now, the newest and best technology cannot guarantee victory. Rather, technology and warfare remain in a timeless dialectic, spurring change without ever stabilizing a military balance of power. New technologies continue to push warfare in unexpected directions, while warfare pulls technology into new stunning possibilities. In an era of computers, drones, and robotic systems, Roland reminds us that, although military technologies keep changing at a precipitous speed, the principles and patterns behind them abide. Brimming with dramatic narratives of battles and deep insights into military psychology, this Very Short Introduction is ultimately an original account of human history seen through the kaleidoscopic lens of war technology. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This chapter is organized as follows. The economic problem on which this book focuses is motivated in Section 1. The two tools used to study this economic problem, which are real options theory and game theory, are discussed in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Section 4 surveys the contents of this book. In Section 5 some promising extensions of the research presented in this book are listed. 1. TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT Investment expenditures of companies govern economic growth. Es- pecially investments in new and more efficient technologies are an impor- tant determinant. In particular, in the last two decades an increasing part of the investment expenditures concerns investments in informa- tion and communication technology. Kriebel, 1989 notes that (already) in 1989 roughly 50 percent of new corporate capital expenditures by major United States companies was in information and communication technology. Due to the rapid progress in these technologies, the tech- nology investment decision of the individual firm has become a very complex matter. As an example of the very high pace of technological improvement consider the market for personal computers. IBM intro- duced its Pentium personal computers in the early 1990s at the same price at which it introduced its 80286 personal computers in the 1980s. Therefore it took less than a decade to improve on the order of twenty times in terms of both speed and memory capacities, without increasing the cost (Yorukoglu, 1998).
Th~s book developed as the collective product of the Internat~onal Federat~on for Informat~on Process~ng (IFIP) Wo~k~ng Group 8 6, a workmg group ded~cated to the study of d~ffus~on and adoptlon of ~nformat~on technology ~nnovat~ons The book proceeds from the IFIP Workmg Conference on Busmess Aglhty and IT D~ffus~on held In Atlanta, Georg~a, In May of 2005 The conference employed a p~~bl~c call for papers and attracted a total of 42 subm~ss~ons These ~ncluded 27 full research papers, and 15 other papers, case stud~es, pract~t~oner experlence reports, posters, and panels The conference program committee ~efereed subm~ss~ons In a double-blmd revlew process Select~on of the papels for ~ncluslon In thls book (and appearance at the conference) was d~fficult, as the quahty of these subm~ss~ons led to an Impresswe number of pos~t~ve revlews Ult~mately we selected 13 research papers, two case stud~es, and three experlence reports, along with three panels The papers s~ibm~tted by the conference's three keynote speakers here ed~torlally rev~ewed and also appear In th~s book Staglng a conference and p~oduclng a book 1s never poss~ble w~thout the commitment and hard work of many ~nd~v~duals and organlzatlons We want to thank IFIP and the sponsors for promotmg the confe~ ence and prov~d~ng support and fimdmg for ~ts lmplementat~on The sponsors are IFIP, Georg~a State Unners~ty, Rob~nson College of Busmess, Gartner, M~crosoft, and Intel Also the conference has been supported by the Computer Informat~on Systems Department and Center for Process Innovat~on at Georg~a State Unl~ers~ty
Automatic Quantum Computer Programming provides an introduction to quantum computing for non-physicists, as well as an introduction to genetic programming for non-computer-scientists. The book explores several ways in which genetic programming can support automatic quantum computer programming and presents detailed descriptions of specific techniques, along with several examples of their human-competitive performance on specific problems. Source code for the author's QGAME quantum computer simulator is included as an appendix, and pointers to additional online resources furnish the reader with an array of tools for automatic quantum computer programming.
Existing textbooks covering the subject of yarn manufacture largely concentrate on describing the workings of machines. Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology presents complete coverage of yarn manufacture and technology and current research findings on the structure and properties of spun yarns. Written by a well-known and respected authority on textile technology, it not only introduces the subject, but it provides students with an advanced understanding of the various process stages. The book introduces the rudiments of staple yarn technology, covering the manufacturing process, the raw materials, and processes including short staple, worsted, semiworsted and woollen spinning, doubling, and specialty yarn processes. It also covers the more advanced studies in staple yarn technology, including new developments in fiber preparation technology, carding technology, roller drafting, gilling, ring spinning, open-end rotor spinning, air jet spinning and new research on unconventional spinning systems. This extensive range of topics, along with hundreds of tables and illustrations presented in Fundamentals of Spun Yarn Technology make it a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the field.
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